A single, but essential
organ – your skin.
LINES & WRINKLES
When we age, wrinkles and lines begin to appear due to a thinning of the epidermis (the outermost layers of cells in the skin) and dermis (the connective layer of tissue between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissues). In the dermis, collagen and elastic fibres become broken over time, giving the skin less structure, fullness and firmness, and resulting in a wrinkle.
- Glycation (excess sugar in the bloodstream)
- Habitual sleeping positions
- Significant weight loss
- Hormonal aging
- Repeated facial expressions
- Photo-aging due to sun or UV damage
- Poor nutrition and hydration
- Pollution, and other factors
Dynamic wrinkles, or muscle wrinkles, form where muscles move the face the most around and between the eyes, and around the mouth. Dynamic wrinkles go deep. As they develop, they create grooves in the skin, which are apparent even when you are not moving your face.
Static wrinkles are lines and crinkles that appear at the corners of the eyes and in other areas on the face. Static wrinkles are more superficial and are most noticeable when the face is moving, such as when you smile or frown.
When you think of the most common signs of ageing, most people think of wrinkles and loss of firmness.
The reality is that age spots are actually one of the most common signs of ageing on your skin, appearing as early as your 40’s—or even earlier if you’ve been consistently exposed to the sun.
For some skin types, and even with responsible sun protection, a lifetime of exposure to the sun’s UV rays can cause age spot hyper-pigmentation, also referred to as sun spots or liver spots.
- Spots are flat brown, dark brown or black and do not impact the skin’s texture.
- Age spots are not significantly different in form from freckles, although freckles are primarily genetic and appear at a much younger age than age spots.
Dr. Naidoo will explain the difference of pigmentation and age spots versus skin cancer and moles during your consultation.
Spots caused by UV exposure appear on skin that has been exposed to the sun frequently, including the face, neck, chest, arms and hands and are more often concentrated in specific areas.
Fortunately, you can prevent and treat age spots to restore clarity to your complexion at any age. A consultation with Dr. Naidoo will determine what is best for the state of your skin.
Acne is the most common skincare issue.
It occurs when hair follicles become clogged by a combination of an oily substance produced by the skin, called sebum, dirt, and dead skin cells.
Oil-producing, overactive sebaceous glands produce more sebum, typically during puberty. The excess sebum clogs pores, which leads to the inflammation (redness and swelling) often associated with acne.
- Acne affects nearly 20% or 5.6 million Canadians.
- Acne affects about 90 per cent of adolescents and 20-30 per cent of adults aged 20 to 40 years.
- More than 80 per cent of acne sufferers are between the ages of 12 and 24.
- Acne affects the face in 99 per cent of cases.
- Infant acne affects approximately 20% of newborn babies.
- It usually starts around puberty and lasts until adulthood, although it can persist for many more years, regardless of age.
- About 25 per cent of teens will still have acne at age 25.
- Women make up 75 per cent of adult cases.
- Mild acne consists of a few lesions that are close to the surface, and not deep or inflamed.
- Moderate acne is marked by deeper nodular lesions and some redness.
- Severe acne involves many lesions, multiple cysts, and a great deal of redness and inflammation.
- Heredity – If either or both of your parents had acne, you are more likely to develop the skin condition.
- Baby Acne – A common condition affecting about 20% of all newborns and are caused by the mother’s hormones. Appears 2 weeks after birth, lasts for a few weeks/months, clears by 3 months.
- Teen Acne – Due to the surge in hormones that occurs at the onset of puberty – androgens (male hormones) increase in size in sebaceous glands as well as the amount of sebum (the oily substance) they produce. It is essential that teen acne be treated early, as some studies have shown that the earlier acne appears the worse it can get during the teen years to avoid becoming more severe and causing permanent scarring.
- Adult Acne – Acne that began during the adolescence years’ can continue into adulthood in a milder or more severe form. Even if you didn’t have acne as a teen, acne can also begin in adulthood. About three quarters of adult acne occurs in women when hormone fluctuations are at their peak – occurring before menstrual periods, or acne flare-ups during pregnancy or menopause.
- Cosmetics – Avoid irritation: look for “oil-free”, “non-comedogenic”, or “non-acnegenic” cosmetics.
- Physical pressure – Avoid skin pressure from chin straps, sports helmets, headbands, mobile phones. They lead to localized acne that develops at the point of skin contact.
- Sweating – Wear loose, cotton-based clothing to avoid clogging pores.
- Overwashing – Avoid cleaning your skin too often – scrubbing/exfoliating, or using strong cleansers or astringent products (i.e. toners with alcohol) can actually strip the skin and irritate it, which can lead to more acne.
- Medications – Medications can cause acne to flare up, such as oral corticosteroids, some contraceptive pills (progestin only), and anti-convulsives, to name a few.
- Menstrual cycle – Be aware – acne increased prior to a woman’s monthly period.
- Picking or squeezing – Contact with acne can make it worse and increase the risk of permanent scarring.
- Food – If you find that your acne get worse when you eat a certain food – eliminate it!
- Ice-pick scars – these are the most commonly seen form of acne scarring, which form deep pits in skin
- Rolling scars – less defined edges but still dip, giving wavelike appearance
- Boxcar scars – pitted scars with defined edges with crater-like appearance
- Hypertrophic (keloid) scars – elevated scar tissue that appear as bumps rather than dips
We can help!
With treatment procedures
Tretinoin-based products help with new collagen production to build new, unscarred tissue.
Chemical or alphahydroxy acid (AHA) peels even out skin tone and can smooth out slight imperfections.
Collagen and hyaluronic acid can be injected below the skin’s surface to plump up pitted areas from rolling scars.
Melasma is a very common skin discolouration that is a patchy brown, tan, or blue-grey, usually seen in women between 20 and 50 years in their reproductive years.
It occurs when estrogen and/or progesterone stimulate pigmentation hormones, particularly those who are taking oral or patch contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) medications.
It is both sun- and hormone-related as sun exposure, genetic predisposition and hormonal changes during pregnancy are the underlying factors.
The condition, also called chloasma or the “mask of pregnancy”, occurs most frequently in darker skinned women, but it can also occur in lighter-skinned people of both sexes.
Dr. Naidoo will explain more about the causes and treatment of melasma during your consultation.
It most often seen on the upper cheeks, upper lip, forehead, jawline and chin. Spots are flat brown, dark brown or black and do not impact the skin’s texture.
Minimize sun exposure. Pregnant women or mothers breastfeeding may need to wait to treat melasma.
Melasma is most common among pregnant women, particularly those with olive or darker skin, like Hispanic, Asian, and Middle Eastern women.
During your consultation with Dr. Naidoo, she will recommend the best treatment for your skin type.
Rosacea is a chronic skin condition and potentially life-disruptive disorder primarily of the facial skin, often characterized by flare-ups and remissions. It is characterized by facial redness, small and superficial dilated blood vessels on facial skin, papules, pustules, and swelling.
Rosacea affects both sexes, but is almost three times more common in women. It is commonly found in people between the ages of 30 and 50, and is more common in Caucasians.
Rosacea typically begins as redness on the central face across the cheeks, nose, or forehead, but can also less commonly affect the neck, chest, ears, and scalp.
In some cases, additional signs, such as:
- semi-permanent redness,
- dilation of superficial blood vessels on the face,
- red domed papules (small bumps) and pustules,
- red gritty eyes,
- burning and stinging sensations, and
- in some advanced cases, a red lobulated nose (rhinophyma), may develop.
Left untreated, bumps and pimples often develop, and in severe cases the nose may grow swollen and bumpy from excess tissue. In many rosacea patients, the eyes are also affected, feeling irritated and appearing watery or bloodshot.
Although rosacea can affect all segments of the population, individuals with fair skin who tend to flush or blush easily are believed to be at greatest risk.
The disease is more frequently diagnosed in women, but more severe symptoms tend to be seen in men — perhaps because they often delay seeking medical help until the disorder reaches advanced stages.
The disorder can be confused with, and co-exist with, acne vulgaris and/or seborrheic dermatitis. The presence of rash on the scalp or ears suggests a different or co-existing diagnosis as rosacea is primarily a facial diagnosis, although it may occasionally appear in these other areas.
While there is no cure for rosacea and the cause is unknown, medical therapy is available to control or reverse its signs and symptoms.
Individuals who suspect they may have rosacea are urged to see a dermatologist or other knowledgeable physician for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
During your consultation with Dr. Naidoo, she will recommend the best treatment for your skin type.
- Episodes of flushing and blushing play a part in its development
- Exposure to temperature extremes, strenuous exercise
- Heat from sunlight, severe sunburn
- Stress, anxiety
- Cold wind, and moving to a warm or hot environment from a cold one, such as heated shops and offices during the winter, can each cause the face to become flushed
- Certain foods and drinks can also trigger flushing, such as alcohol, foods and beverages containing caffeine (especially hot tea and coffee)
- Foods high in histamines, and spicy foods
- Medications and topical irritants have also been known to trigger rosacea flares
- Treating rosacea varies depending on severity and subtypes.
- Laser therapy has also been classified as a form of treatment. When appropriate, treatments with lasers, intense pulsed light sources or other medical and surgical devices may be used to remove visible blood vessels, reduce extensive redness or correct disfigurement of the nose.
- Using alpha-hydroxy acid peels may help relieve redness caused by irritation, and reduce papules and pustules associated with rosacea. Dermatological vascular laser (single wavelength) or intense pulsed light (broad spectrum) machines offer one of the best treatments for rosacea, in particular theerythema (redness) of the skin. They use light to penetrate the epidermis to target the capillaries in the dermis layer of the skin. The light is absorbed by oxyhemoglobin, which heats up, causing the capillary walls to heat up to 70°C (158°F), damaging them, and causing them to be absorbed by the body’s natural defense mechanism. With a sufficient number of treatments, this method may even eliminate the redness altogether, though additional periodic treatments will likely be necessary to remove newly formed capillaries.
- CO2 lasers can be used to remove excess tissue caused by phymatous rosacea. CO2 lasers emit a wavelength that is absorbed directly by the skin. The laser beam can be focused into a thin beam and used as a scalpel or defocused and used to vaporize tissue. Low-level light therapies have also been used to treat rosacea.
- Photorejuvenation can also be used to improve the appearance of rosacea and reduce the redness associated with it.
- While medications often produce a temporary remission of redness within a few weeks, the redness typically returns shortly after treatment is suspended. Long-term treatment, usually one to two years, may result in permanent control of the condition for some patients. Lifelong treatment is often necessary, although some cases resolve after a while and go into a permanent remission.
- Because sunlight is a common trigger, avoiding excessive exposure to sun is widely recommended. Some people with rosacea benefit from daily use of a sunscreen; others opt for wearing hats with broad brims. Like sunlight, emotional stress can also trigger rosacea. People who develop infections of the eyelids must practice frequent eyelid hygiene.
- Managing pretrigger events such as prolonged exposure to cool environments can directly influence warm room flushing.
Because the signs and symptoms of rosacea vary from one patient to another, treatment must be tailored by Dr. Naidoo for each individual case.
The medical term for spider veins and broken capillaries is telangiectasia – smaller, red, purple, and blue vessels that also twist and turn.
Spider veins develop from a venous deficiency that occurs from a back-flow of blood in the veins. The pressure causes damage to the vessel walls which brings them to the skin’s surface.
Caused by prolonged inflammation, high blood pressure and obesity, as well as rubbing or washing the face too hard can cause broken capillaries, especially around the eye area.
- Spider veins are easily visible through the skin and are typically visible on the legs and face
- On the face they appear around the nose or under the eyes
- Spider veins develop more often in women than in men
- They increase in frequency with age – an estimated 30% to 60% of adults have spider veins
The causes of spider veins on the face may differ from the causes on the legs or other areas. The red or bluish threads are injured veins or capillaries.
Usually harmless, there is a growing cosmetic concern over the condition. More than 50% of North American women complain about their spider veins.
Laser treatment uses pulses of laser light that are delivered inside the vein, which causes the vein to collapse.
As the skin heals, the veins all but disappear.
Ask Dr. Naidoo if your spider veins can be treated.
Sweating can be embarrassing. It stains clothes, its awkward and its uncomfortable … especially in social situations.
The medical term is called Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating) and occurs in people who are otherwise healthy. Heat and emotions may trigger hyperhidrosis, but many who suffer from it perspire nearly all the time, regardless of their mood or the weather. When regular options fail, and they often do, we can help.
Excessive sweating can also be a warning sign of thyroid problems, diabetes or infection. Excessive sweating is also more common in people who are overweight or out of shape.
Hyperhidrosis or excessive sweating, is a common disorder that produces a lot of unhappiness and occurs in people who are otherwise healthy.
Severe cases can have serious practical consequences, like making it difficult to hold a pen, grip a steering wheel, or shake hands.
- The most common cause of excessive sweating is called primary focal or localized hyperhidrosis, affecting about 1% to 3% of the population
- Usually starts in childhood or adolescence and affects specific parts of the body, such as the underarms, groin, head, face, hands, or feet
After consultation with Dr. Naidoo, she may recommend Botox™. It’s quick and effective, and is the number one treatment for excessive axillary sweating.
Botox is injected into tissues of the armpit area and can result in about six months of relief.
Not all sweat is equal — so why not treat it before it becomes an issue!